Police are investigating after a brick was thrown through a window of the Iqra education centre at Madrassa-tul-madina in Garstang Road at 4am on Tuesday, March 12.
Two men have been captured on CCTV committing the vandalism and the footage has been passed to police.
The centre, near Moor Park, provides Islamic education for children up to the age of 15.
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Staff at the centre said they have asked the police to investigate the incident as a hate crime.
The centre was targeted just three days before a terrorist killed 50 worshippers at two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand.
Following the terror attack in New Zealand, Lancashire Police said it would increase patrols and visibility around mosques in Preston.
On Thursday, March 21, the Post revealed that Lancashire Police had investigated more than 1,500 reports of racially and religiously aggravated crimes in 2018.
A spokesman for Lancashire Police said the incident "has been reported to us."
Mukhtar Master, a spokesman for the city's mosques, said: "Unfortunately, it is deeply saddening that this type of incident has become almost a regular occurrence up and down the country.
"Clearly there does appear to be an increase on hate crimes, particularly directed towards the Muslim community.
"However, let’s hope that this is an isolated incident for a city such as Preston."
But the force could not confirm whether the incident is being investigated as a hate crime at this stage.
Anyone with information is asked to call police on 101 quoting reference number LC-20190312-0991.