Three of the biggest mobile service providers in the UK are also the least popular, according to a customer satisfaction survey carried out by Which? Magazine.
Vodafone, EE and O2 made up the bottom three, while virtual network Giffgaff finished top in the poll.
The survey asked 6,135 Which? members to rate the mobile network provider based on factors including customer service and value for money. They were also asked if they would recommend the service to people they knew.
Vodafone is ranked the worst network provider in the UK
Vodafone came bottom after getting the lowest rating for customer service, value for money and technical support.
EE was also rated poorly, with only a quarter of customers saying they were happy with customer support and less than half praising the customer service.
The prevailing trend from the survey was that smaller virtual networks provide superior service.
A virtual network provider is one that leases telephone and data spectrum from the larger, main providers.
Thirteen networks were reviewed in the survey and the top three were Giffgaff, Utility Warehouse and Plusnet Mobile.
Nearly every Giffgaff customer surveyed said that they would recommend the service, and that they felt that they were getting good value for money.
UK mobile networks ranked
2. Utility Warehouse
3. Plusnet Mobile
4. Tesco Mobile
5. Asda Mobile
6. Sky Mobile
7. ID Mobile
9. BT Mobile
10. Virgin Mobile
The survey also analysed the costs of sim-only and contracts that included iPhone XS and Samsung Galaxy S10.
It found that the deals on offer from the larger network providers such as EE, O2, Vodafone and Three were more expensive than the equivalents offered by the smaller, virtual network operators.