The incident happened northbound on the M9 between junctions one and two in West Lothian at about 5.50pm on Friday.
The bike is believed to have come loose from a vehicle travelling on the opposite carriageway.
Images released by Police Scotland show the handlebars smashed through the driver's side of the windscreen above the steering wheel.
The bike's wheel was sticking out from a hole in the windscreen.
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The driver of the white Ford Focus, a 60-year-old woman, was able to bring her car to a stop on the hard shoulder.
She was taken to St John's Hospital in Livingston with minor injuries.
Officers have appealed for witnesses and said it was "pure luck" that nobody was more seriously injured.
Sergeant Jennifer Forbes, of Police Scotland's road policing unit, said: "The consequences of this incident could have been far more severe and is only through pure luck that nobody was more seriously injured or worse.
"It should stand as a stark reminder of the importance of making sure that any load being carried out on your vehicle is properly and thoroughly secured.
"We are carrying out inquiries to identify the vehicle which had been carrying the bicycle and I would urge anyone who can help to come forward.
"We would be keen to speak to anyone who may have witnessed the incident. If you were on the road late on Friday afternoon and may have dashcam footage which could help our investigation then please get in touch."
The bicycle is described by police as a Kona Kula 2-9 pedal cycle with a 16 inch light blue and white coloured frame.
Anyone with information can contact officers by phoning 101.