The winger was presented with the Sir Tom Finney Trophy during PNE's community day at Deepdale.
McGeady has been on a season-long loan from Everton, producing some dazzling form over the last few months.
On Saturday, he wore the skipper's armband in the 1-1 draw with Rotherham United - the first time he had captained a side in his career.
Ben Pearson was named young player of the year, while Jordan Hugill won the goal of the season award for his solo strike against Aston Villa at Villa Park in January.
North End skipper Tom Clarke was voted players' player of the year by his team-mates, John Welsh picking up the award on behalf of Clarke who is recovering at home after surgery to repair a ruptured Achilles tendon.
Goalkeeper Chris Maxwell won the Community player of the year award, with youth-team keeper Callum Roberts taking scholar of the year - he will join the club's professional ranks in July.
The presentations were made at half-time of Simon Grayson's charity game which was the centre-piece of PNE's community day.
A Grayson XI, made up of former players and showbiz celebrities, beat a Preston fans' team 3-2, the supporters having bid by auction to play in the game.
More than Â£7,000 has already been raised for Prostate Cancer UK from the team auction and donations made by fans attending the community day.