The image, the only post on the account world_record_egg, shows a single egg on a plain white background.
It has amassed more than 25 million likes since being uploaded on January 4.
That figure means it has surpassed the previous record-holder, reality star Kylie Jenner, whose photo of her daughter alongside confirmation of her name - Stormi Webster - has been liked more than 18 million times since being uploaded in February last year.
The world_record_egg account appears to have been created solely to break the record.
"Let's set a world record together and get the most liked post on Instagram. Beating the current world record held by Kylie Jenner (18 million)! We got this," the caption alongside the image reads.
Those behind the account remain unknown, but thanked Instagram users in a message posted to the account's Instagram Story upon breaking the record.
"This is a (sic) madness. What a time to be alive," it said.
"Thank you so much for all of your support and messages. I'm gonna try and get back to as many of you as possible. But for now I need to sleep.
"It doesn't end here though, we're only just getting started. #EggGang. Mic drop."
The account has also amassed more than 2.6 million followers.
Its single post joins Justin Bieber's announcement of his engagement to Hailey Baldwin, as well as other posts from Jenner, singer Ariana Grande and Juventus footballer Cristiano Ronaldo in the top 10.
The Facebook-owned social media platform has more than one billion monthly active users.