"Toxic fumes in aircraft cabins could cause serious health problems, scientists warn," reports The Sun. This is based on a UK study investigating air contamination on aircraft and its possible effects on the health of pilots and cabin crew.
The researchers say the air supply on planes can become contaminated by leaks of oil or other chemicals from the engines and they wanted to find out if this was associated with any health problems.
The study, published in the World Health Organization journal, found there is a link between exposure to contaminated air and short-term problems such as drowsiness, loss of consciousness, headache and tremors, and longer-term issues such as problems with memory or concentration and fatigue.
This is mainly worrying for pilots and staff on aircrafts, but could also be a concern for passengers if exposure to highly contaminated air causes a pilot to feel drowsy or pass out. However, only a few case studies of serious air contamination were investigated in this study, suggesting these events are rare.
The study didn't look in detail at whether exposure to contaminated air on planes was harmful to passengers, so it's not possible to draw firm conclusions about whether there's a health risk for people who fly regularly or only occasionally.
The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Stirling and the University of Ulster in the UK, as well as a consultant respiratory physician from Melbourne in Australia. It received no sources of funding.
The UK media generally reported the story accurately, although the Sun's message of "Flying should 'come with a health warning' as toxic fumes contaminate air in cabins leading to serious health problems, research suggests" is fairly misleading as it suggests the research was done on passengers, when it was actually only carried out on aircraft staff.
This was a combination of two studies, one involving a survey of pilots from the UK and the second an analysis of 15 case reports of potential cabin air quality incidents. They both aimed to look at the circumstances and symptoms of aircrew working in the pressurised air environment of aircraft.
There have been concerns over the years regarding the health effects of exposure to aircraft contaminated air for aircrew. Unfiltered breathing air is provided to the cabin by the engine compressor. If oil leaks over the engine oil seals, chemicals can enter the air being supplied to the cabin. This might mean those on board may be exposed to some potentially harmful substances.
By combining these two types of studies, the authors aimed to carry out a more in-depth investigation of aircrew involved in suspected aircraft contaminated events by seeing if the reported symptoms were consistent with exposure to pyrolysed (heated) jet engine oil and other chemicals.
Researchers carried out two independent studies to investigate the circumstances and symptoms of aircrew who worked in the pressurised air environment of aircraft.
The first was a survey of UK British Airways pilots between 2005 and 2009 who agreed to a telephone interview or responded to a written questionnaire.
The pilots were asked:
Of all the pilots who were contacted, 274 (14%) agreed to participate.
The second study involved 15 case reports from Australia, the US, Germany and the UK, of potential cabin air quality incidents. These particular cases were chosen because the health problems reported were suggestive of exposure to contaminated air.
Data sources included: the airlines, crew and maintenance reports, incident investigation and regulator reports, health effects and medical records, as well as media, union and legal reports.
Symptoms for both studies were recorded.
The substances found in the engine oils and other chemicals were then measured against European standards to see if they were at hazardous levels or not.
From the survey:
Among the case studies:
The authors concluded that "aircraft air supplies contaminated by pyrolysed [heated] engine oil and other aircraft fluids can reasonably be linked to acute and chronic symptoms, findings and diagnoses, thus establishing causation".
They further add that "there is an obvious need for a clearly defined internationally recognised medical protocol, occupational syndrome and disease recognition, and health and environmental data collection".
These findings indicate that on rare occasions, pilots have not been able to perform as usual due to poor air quality in the cabin. Also poor air quality has been linked to health problems in the long term.
However, there are some limitations of the study that need to be considered: