Researchers have said that “older people may need less sleep than younger people”, The Daily Telegraph reported today. It said that a US study had found that when people were told to sleep for 16 hours a day for several days, those aged between 60 and 72 years managed an average of 7.5 hours sleep compared to nine hours amongst the 18-32 year-olds. The study also found that most of the younger subjects slept much longer during the study than they normally did, which suggested that they usually did not get enough sleep.
“A daily aspirin taken to ward off heart attacks could do more harm than good,” the Daily Mail warns. It said that aspirin is often prescribed for diabetics as they are at a much higher risk of heart disease. However, a study in 1,276 diabetics found no benefit from either aspirin or antioxodants in preventing heart attacks. It also increases the risk of internal bleeding. BBC News covered the story, and said people who are at high risk and have already had a heart attack or stroke should continue to take it.
Parents have been advised that children under 15 should never be given alcohol, BBC News reported. It said that Sir Liam Donaldson, England’s chief medical officer (CMO) has warned that children who drink are at risk of serious harm and that childhood should be an ‘alcohol free time’.
“Tighter control of blood sugar levels in people with diabetes may cut their risk of heart problems,” BBC News has reported. The news service said a study pooling data on 33,000 people with type 2 diabetes has shown that intensive control of blood sugar levels cuts heart attacks by 17% and heart disease by 15%.
“A new portable kidney dialysis machine could allow patients to move freely, lead normal lives and even sleep through their treatment”, The Guardian reported today.
“Fathers of test tube babies may be passing on their infertility to their sons,” according to The Times.
“A brain implant has allowed paralysed monkeys to move their limbs by tapping into their thoughts and redirecting the signals to their muscles,” The Guardian reported. The newspaper says this is a major development in the search for treatments for people paralysed due to spinal cord injuries or stroke. It said that there is hope that in the future, disabled people will be able to control of their limbs by using the implant. Several newspapers report different timescales for when the treatment might start being used in humans.
“Marriage trebles the risk of obesity,” the Daily Express has warned. It says that new research shows that once couples marry they are three times as likely to become obese compared with people who live separately.
A three-minute test to diagnose prostate cancer “could save thousands of lives a year”, the Daily Express has said. The technique mixes a small amount of prostate gland fluid with a light-emitting chemical. The amount of light produced indicates levels of the natural substance citrate found in the fluid. Lower citrate levels are found in prostate cancer tissue than in normal prostate tissue.
Reports that long periods of overseas deployment in the armed forces are causes of stress, alcoholism, and other domestic problems appeared on the BBC and in several daily newspapers.
Scientists have published research estimating how effective the swine flu vaccine will at reducing infection rates in the US this autumn. This research involves complex statistical modelling based on what is already known about swine flu and assumptions based on a range of flu vaccination strategies. The study suggests that strategies that aim to vaccinate everyone before the start of an autumn spread of the virus or of a phased vaccination at the onset of an autumn surge are likely to be effective as long as 70% of the population is vaccinated.
“Half a glass of wine a day can add five years to your life” The Daily Telegraph has said, claiming that new research shows that that light, long-term consumption boosted longevity, ‘with the biggest increase caused by wine’.
A study has found that “teenagers who eat lots of take-aways are more likely to behave badly,” reported the Daily Express. It said that the finding confirms the belief that poor diets are linked to mental health problems. According to the newspaper, the researchers blamed junk food for problems such as depression, aggression and delinquency.
“Fearful faces 'spot threats better'” is the headline on Channel 4 News. The Observer also reported on the same study at the weekend, claiming that a team of Canadian neuroscientists had solved the evolutionary mystery of why our faces contort in a certain way when we are scared.
Levels of obesity in the western world are “soaring” and this may lead to an “infertility crisis” in women, The Guardian reported today. The newspaper continued by saying that couples seeking infertility treatment could double to one in five within the next 5 years, but also that the problem could be eased if women lost weight.
"A man who was presumed to be in a vegetative state for five years has answered questions using his thoughts alone", reported The Times. It said the research could allow some patients who are “locked in” by brain injuries to communicate.
Obese men may be less likely to develop prostate cancer, but are more likely to die of the disease if they do develop it, reported The Guardian. These men “have a greater risk of developing one of the most aggressive and life-threatening forms of prostate cancer,” the newspaper explained.
“Overweight heart attack victims should stay fat as they are more likely to live longer”, the Daily Mail reported. It said that the controversial claim that being fat can be useful for heart attack patients has come from a review published in a journal.
Dark chocolate cuts levels of stress hormones and rebalances other body chemicals, according to the Daily Mail. The Daily Express also featured the claim that chocolate reduces the risk of heart disease and high blood pressure and improves brain function.
“Work is good for you, especially after you've retired,” says the Daily Mail. The newspaper and others report that workers who stop working suddenly the moment they reach retirement age are at greater risk of heart attacks, cancer and other major diseases than those who ease their way into old age by taking a part-time job.
“Peanut butter wards off heart disease,” the Daily Mail has reported. The newspaper said that peanut butter sandwiches could be the secret to beating heart disease after scientists found that snacking on nuts five days a week can halve the risk of a heart attack.
A “toxic vaccine" is a threat to babies, The Independent’s front page reported. It said that health officials had withdrawn more than 20,000 doses of the meningitis C vaccine as some may have been contaminated with the dangerous blood-poisoning bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus. The doses had been sent out "about a week ago" to GP clinics around the country.
“Women 'should take vitamin D in pregnancy to stave off rickets'” is the headline in The Daily Telegraph today. It suggests that vitamin D supplements may also benefit infants and toddlers. A US study found that “infants who were fed exclusively on breastmilk by mothers who did not take vitamin D supplements were more than 10 times as likely to show signs of a deficiency than bottle-fed babies”. The study found that exposure to the sun, sunscreen use, and skin colouring had no effect on vitamin D deficiency among babies and toddlers.
Statins are a ”mixed blessing” that can cut the risk of stroke, but trigger bleeding in the brain warns the Daily Mail today. The newspaper goes onto say that a study found that “statins can significantly cut the risk of stroke”, but “this benefit was partially undermined by a slight increase in the risk of suffering a haemorrhagic stroke”.
A “single espresso a day ‘can damage the heart,’” The Daily Telegraph reported. It said a study has found that one cup is enough to reduce blood flow to the heart by 22% within an hour of being drunk.
“Awkward youngsters are more likely to shun exercise and team sports which could lead to their long-term weight gain”, The Daily Telegraph reports. It says that researchers examined the results of 11,000 children who had been tested for “poor hand control, coordination and clumsiness”, and compared the results to their BMI at age 33. The study found that clumsy children were twice as likely to become obese as their coordinated classmates.
“Sedentary lifestyles are making children less fit - even among those who are not obese,” the BBC reported.
“Broccoli may ‘help protect lungs’” reported BBC News. It said that research suggests that a compound found in broccoli, sulforaphane, increases the expression (activity) of a gene found in lung cells that protects the organ from damage caused by toxins. The news service said that scientists have found that the gene is less active in the lungs of smokers who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and increasing expression of the gene may lead to useful treatments.
“Sweaty people 'less asthma prone'”, is the headline on the BBC News website. Researchers suggest that the ability to sweat may do more than keep the body cool, it may lower the chance of exercise-related asthma. People “who make less sweat, tears and saliva when exercising may have more breathing problems”, the BBC says.
BBC News says that a “flawed gene” has been linked to ovarian cancer. The website says that, by looking at the DNA of 17,000 women, scientists have identified a genetic flaw that can increase the risk of the cancer. Carrying two copies of the identified gene can apparently increase the risk of cancer by 40%, and around 15% of women carry at least one copy of this gene.
“Children at nursery less likely to get asthma”, reports The Daily Telegraph. Spending time with other youngsters from the age of six to 12 months “can cut the chance of developing the condition by 70%”, the newspaper says.
Parents who buy educational DVDs to give their toddlers a head start may be doing more harm than good,” the Daily Mail reported. It said a study on a DVD from Disney's Baby Einstein series found it did nothing to boost vocabulary and children who started on the DVDs at a younger age actually had a worse vocabulary.
Drinking coffee can double the risk of miscarriage reported The Guardian and many other news sources yesterday. “Pregnant women who consumed two or more mugs of coffee a day were twice as likely to miscarry than those who abstained from caffeine,” The Guardian said. The media coverage suggested that pregnant women may wish to reduce or stop drinking drinks containing caffeine, including coffee and tea.
“Keeping up with the Joneses can jeopardise your health,” warns the Daily Mail. It says that research has found that those who feel eclipsed by the success of their friends and neighbours are more likely to have heart disease, diabetes, ulcers and high blood pressure.
Widespread media coverage has been given to the launch of a new pill to prevent heart disease and stroke. The Sun said the pill, called Ateronon, “could save thousands of lives”. The Daily Telegraph said that the new product contains lycopene, a natural compound found in tomatoes that is a powerful antioxidant. The newspaper said the compound prevents cholesterol and the build-up of fatty (atherosclerotic) deposits in arteries.
Rapid treatment following a mini stroke (a transient ischaemic attack, or TIA) reduces the risk of a major stroke occurring by 80%, newspapers reported. The Daily Mail said that there is a 10% risk of “a major disabling or fatal stroke occurring in the first month” following a TIA, but that this could be reduced by prompt drug treatment, preventing up to 10,000 strokes from occurring annually.
“Treating the over-80s with blood pressure drugs can cut death rates by 21 per cent, study shows” is the headline in the Daily Mail today. It reports that although other studies have suggested that the over-80s may be harmed by medication for high blood pressure, this study found “lowering blood pressure in the over-80s cut their death rate by a fifth and heart attacks by a third”.
“Exercise does not help to alleviate period pain, despite it being commonly recommended for women with monthly symptoms,” the BBC reported.
Children are not meeting the internationally recommended levels of physical exercise, reported The Guardian. “To be healthy and stave off risks of obesity and linked conditions such as diabetes, youngsters are recommended to take an hour a day of moderate to vigorous exercise,” the newspaper explained. It suggested that only one in 250 girls and one in 20 boys are getting enough exercise to stay healthy. The Guardian estimated that more than 700,000 children are putting their future health at risk.
“You don't have to be bipolar to be a genius – but it helps,” according to The Independent. The newspaper said that a Swedish study of over 700,000 adults found that those who scored top grades at school were “four times more likely to develop bipolar disorder than those with average grades”.
“Coffee before gym session ‘takes the pain out of exercise,’” The Daily Telegraph has reported. The newspaper says that Professor Motl from the University of Illinois, who has studied the relationship between coffee and exercise for years, has demonstrated in new research that coffee consumption can reduce the pain of high-intensity exercise. It is thought that this is due to its effect on receptors in the body, which normally alert the brain to muscle strain.
An experimental HIV vaccine cuts infections by a third, newspapers reported. The Guardian called it a “breakthrough”, and the first evidence of a possible vaccine against AIDS. It said a trial in more than 16,000 men in Thailand found vaccinated men had a 31% lower risk of infection.
Several newspapers have reported on research into cot deaths, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The Daily Telegraph and The Times report that half of cot deaths “happen when babies are sleeping with their parents”, while the Daily Express says that one in four cot deaths is linked to “swaddling of babies”.
“Just the smell of coffee could be enough to wake us up in the morning”, reported The Daily Telegraph today. The newspaper explained that in a study on thirty sleep-deprived rats, brain activity - measured by levels of “messenger molecules” - was boosted in those which had smelt roasted coffee beans compared to those that had not. According to the report, the researchers suggest that this study could lead to factory owners pumping the smell of coffee into their building to revive flagging workers.
“Two or more abortions could more than double chances of a premature birth next time,” the Daily Mail has reported. Numerous news sources have reported on new research that has linked early pregnancy complications to problems later in pregnancy or in subsequent pregnancies.
Extensive coverage has been given today to news that common breakfast foods such as pastries and muffins, contain high levels of “hidden” salt. Many sources, including The Guardian, The Sun and the BBC, said that foods which people commonly think are healthy are not. The Guardian says many people know that fry-ups are unhealthy, but fewer know that pastries from high street coffee chains can contain a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of six grams. The Sun reports that a Starbucks cinnamon swirl is as salty as two rashers of bacon, and a Costa Coffee muffin has three times more salt than a packet of crisps.
Several newspapers report today on a “dramatic IVF breakthrough” that screens embryos for genetic defects and greatly increases the chance of a woman becoming pregnant.
Prostate cancer patients should be treated with “radiotherapy as well as hormones” according to The Daily Telegraph. It reports that scientists recommend that using both treatments should be the standard for tackling the cancer, instead of the current practice prescribing long-term hormone treatment only.
“Knee surgery to treat osteoarthritis may be a waste of time and money”, said The Daily Telegraph today. It explained that the results of new research suggest that physiotherapy and painkillers are just as effective. In this Canadian study, patients who had either arthoscopic surgery or physiotherapy had similar improvements in joint pain and stiffness, and surgery had “no extra benefit”.
New research has shown that “Vitamin E ‘can increase the risk of heart defects in babies,’” says the Daily Mail. The newspaper warns that consuming as little as three-quarters of the recommended daily amount of vitamin E while pregnant can lead to a nine-fold increase the risk of a heart problem at birth.